There’s a right way to prune trees and shrubs
Prune liriope in February prior to the beginning of new growth. Pruning trees needs to include evaluating branches for future growth considerations
Winter and early spring are when many gardeners prune plants, which is the correct time for most plants in the home landscape.
Prior to pruning, be sure you know the characteristics of the plant being pruned and be sure to determine whether it needs to be pruned or can be left alone for another growing season.
No specific set of rules will cover all pruning. The important consideration should be preserving the natural form of a particular species.
For shrubs, the extent of annual pruning depends on the plant. Some shrubs may require removing a considerable amount of wood each year, while others require little pruning. It’s much better to prune lightly each year rather than severely butcher a plant after several years of growth.
When pruning, first remove weak and spindly wood inside the plant perimeter or near the ground. Next, reduce the height of the plant to the desired level by making cuts at various heights, always keeping in mind the natural form of the plant.
One rule for cane-type plants like nandina and mahonia is to remove one-third of the oldest and tallest canes near the ground each year. This will keep the height of the plant at a reasonable level.
Make all large cuts on the outside of the little wrinkle at the shoulder of the limb to promote callus and healing. Cuts made flush with a primary branch or central trunk remove this shoulder wrinkle, and healing over never occurs, leaving your plant susceptible to insects and diseases.
People once believed that pruning cuts, especially large ones, needed to be painted with special pruning compounds to prevent the entry of insects and diseases. We now know these compounds can cause the plant more harm than good. Do not use pruning paints, wound dressings and similar materials.
Several plant types or categories need special treatment for the purpose of specific training. These include espaliered plants, topiary or “poodled” plants, and other landscape oddities.
Pruning flowering shrubs depends on the time of the year they bloom. Prune late winter- and spring-flowering shrubs after they flower. If you prune spring-flowering shrubs during winter, you will be removing flower buds. Examples in this category include azalea, spirea, mock orange, quince, hydrangea, forsythia, gardenia, camellia, viburnum, and flowering almond. For azaleas, finish pruning by late June or early July.
Prune summer-flowering shrubs from mid- to late winter before spring growth. Some plants in this group are crape myrtle, oleander, vitex and althea. Most non-flowering evergreens should be pruned in the dormant winter season, but some pruning may be done throughout the year.
Prune ground covers, such as liriope, before growth commences in late February or early March.
Young trees need to be pruned and trained properly to develop growth for the future, and mature trees may need an occasional pruning to maintain plant health and vigor.
Be sure young trees in the landscape have a dominant central leader, like a trunk or major branch. Next, select the permanent branches that will be the major structural framework of the tree in future years. These branches should have a wide angle of attachment to the main trunk for greatest strength. Also, they should be uniformly distributed around and up and down the trunk of the tree. This distribution up, down and around is referred to as vertical and radial branch distribution.
While selecting the permanent branches, you may need to leave a few temporary branches to help the tree grow. These temporary branches can be removed after two or three years – as soon as the permanent branches have filled out.
Mature trees occasionally need dead wood removed. This process is called “dead wooding” or “cleaning out.” Crown thinning is another pruning technique and involves “opening up” the canopy of deciduous trees. Never “top” a tree.
Thinning out mature trees reduces the height and spread of the tree while maintaining the natural shape. It is very important to prune mature trees properly and may need to be done by a licensed arborist.